Top 10 Man-Made Material

Man made material

Are you aware of the Man-Made Material? Well, many of us do not know most of the Different substances give different Colours to Glass. Hence, in this blog, we have listed out all the Colloidal Solutions in 2021.

In most of the government entrance examinations like RRB (Railway Recruitment Board), SSC (Staff Selection Commission), BPSC, CTET, Indian Army, and many other competitive exams there is a separate section called General Awareness or General Knowledge, General Science in which there are questions asked regarding Uses of Some Important Polymers and their Monomers. So, to ease out your preparation we have explained in detail the list of important Uses of Some Fibres and Their Monomers. Along with general knowledge, General Science staying updated with Daily Current affairs is also important. Go through the blog to know all the Industrial Names of Some Important Compounds.


Inportant Top 10 Man-Made Material

Soaps

  • These are sodium and potassium salts of higher fatty acids.
  • E.g., sodium palmitate, sodium stearate etc.

Detergents

  • These are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain alkyl or aryl sulphonates or sulphates.
  • E.g., sodium alkyl sulphonate, sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate, etc.
  • These are also called soapless soap.
  • The cationic detergents are used as fabric softeners and germicides, while non-ionic detergents are used as liquid dist washing detergents.
  • Detergents lather with hard water.

Fertilizers

  • These substances increase the fertility of the soil.
  • E.g., basic calcium nitrate [Cao.Ca(NO3)2], ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4]. These two increases the acidity of the soil, which is removed by adding lime.
  • Other examples are calcium cyanamide or nitrolim (CaCN2), Urea or carbamide (it does not affect the pH of soil), calcium super phosphate or super phosphate of lime [Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4. 2H2O]

Glass

  • It is an amorphous or transparent solid, also called Supercooled liquid.
  • It contains mainly silica (SiO2)

Different substances give different Colour to Glass

ColourSubstance added
RedCopper (I) oxide (Cu2O)
GreenChromium oxide (Cr2O3)
VioletManganese oxide (MnO2)
BlueCobalt oxide (CaO)
BrownIron oxide (Fe2O3)

It can be of the following types:-

  1. Soda or soft glass is a sodium calcium silicate (Na2O. CaO.6SiO2). It is ordinary glass and used for making bottles, window panes etc.
  2. Potash Glass or Hard Glass is used for chemical apparatus: beakers, flasks, funnels, etc.
  3. Crook’s glass contains cesium oxides. It is used for spectacles as it absorbs UV (Ultraviolet) rays.
  4. Jena glass contains B2O3 and alumina. It is stronger and more resistant to acids and alkalies, that’s why used for making laboratory bottles, for keeping acids and alkalies.
  5. Glass laminates are made by fixing polymer sheets between layers of glass. It used to make windows and screens od cars, trains and aircraft. Specially manufactured glass laminated are used as bulletproof material.

Cement or Portland Cement

  • It has the following composition calcium oxide (CaO)=50-60%, silica (SiO2)=20-25%, alumina (Al2O3)=5-10%, magnesium oxide (MgO)=2-3%.
  • It is manufactured from limestone and clay.
  • Gypsum decreases the rate of setting of cement.

Polymers

  • These are compounds of high molecular mass and made up of monomers.
  • LAC is natural plastic (polymers)

Some Important Polymers and their Monomers

PolymersMonomers
BakeliteFormaldehyde + phenol
PolyethyleneEthylene
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)Vinyl chloride
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or TeflonTetrafluoro ethene

Fibres

  • These have strong intermolecular forces like hydrogen bonding.

E.g.:- nylon-66, Dacron, Orlon, etc.

Some Fibres and Their Monomers

FibreMonomersUses
Nylon-66Adipic acid + hexamethylene diamineIn making bristles for brushes, synthetic fibres, parachutes.
TeryleneEthylene glycol and terephthalic acidFor making wash and wear fabrics, tire cords, safety belts, tents, etc.
KevlarTerephthalic acid + 1,4-diamino benzeneFor making bulletproof vests.
Lexan or PolycarbonateDiethyl carbonate + bis-phenol-AIn making bulletproof windows.
PolyurethanesToluene diisocyanate + ethylene glycolFor making washable and long-lasting mattresses, cushions.

Natural Rubber

  • It is an elastomer. It is a polymer of cis-isoprene. Synthetic rubber (neoprene) is a polymer of chloroprene.
  • It is heated with sulphur compounds at 373K in the presence of ZnO to improve its properties. This process is called the vulcanisation of rubber.
  • If vulcanised with 5% S, it is used for making tyres and if with 30% sulphur, it is used in making battery cases.
  • Trans-polyisoprene is called gutta-purcha.

Explosives

Some examples of explosives are Trinitrotoluene (TNT), Nitroglycerine or Trinitroglycerine, Cyclotrimethylene trinitroamine (RDX also called Cyclonite and Hexogen).

Industrial Names of Some Important Compounds

Industrial NameChemical Name and Formula
AlumPotassium aluminium sulphate
(K2SO4 . Al2(SO4)3. 24 H2O)
BoraxSodium tetraborate decahydrate
(Na2B4O7. 10 H2O)
Caustic sodaSodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Dry iceSolid carbon dioxide (CO2)
Glauber’s saltSodium sulphate decahydrate
(Na2SO4 . 10H2O)
HypoSodium thiosulphate pentahydrate
(Na2S2O3 . 5H2O)
Laughing gasNitrous oxide (N2O)
Lunar causticSilver nitrate (AgNO3)
Marble or Chalk or PearlCalcium carbonate (CaCO3)
Marsh gasMethane (CH4)
Mohr’s saltFerrous ammonium sulphate
(NH4)2SO4. FeSO4. 6H2O or (NH4)2 Fe(SO4)2. 6H2O
Muriatic acidHydrogen chloride (HCl)
Pearl ashPotassium carbonate (K2CO3)
QuicklimeCalcium oxide (CaO)
Red leadLead oxide (Pb3O2)
Ruby or sapphireAluminium oxide (Al2O3)
SandSilicon dioxide (SiO2)
Sal ammoniacAmmonium chloride (NH4Cl)
Slaked limeCalcium hydroxide ( Ca(OH)2))
SpiritMethyl alcohol (CH3OH)
Soda ashSodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
VinegarAcetic acid (CH3COOH)

Medicines

These are chemicals used for treating diseases and reducing suffering from pain.

Different medicines and their Examples

MedicineUsed toExample
AnalgesicsReduce painAspirin, paracetamol, morphine, phenacetin
AntisepticPrevent the growth of micro-organisms or kill themDettol, savlon, iodine, tinoture, boric acid, hydrogen peroxide, iodoform.
AntibioticDestroy microorganisms (these are obtained from microorganisms.)Penicillin (discovered by A Fleming in 1929, ampicillin, amoxicillin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol)
AntimalarialCure malariaChloroquine
AntacidsReduce acidityBaking soda, magnesium hydroxide
Sulpha drugsAlternative for antibioticsSulphanilamide, sulphadiazine
TranquillizersTo treat stress, mild and server mental diseasesEquanil, valium, chlorodiazoepoxide, serotonin and meprobamate

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