Human Diseases

Human Diseases
Human Diseases

Are you aware of Human Diseases? Well, many of us do not know most of Human Diseases. Hence, in this blog, we have listed out all the Human Diseases in 2021 with a Free PDF Download.

In most of the government entrance examinations like RRB (Railway Recruitment Board), SSC (Staff Selection Commission), BPSC, CTET, Indian Army, CGL, CPO, Police, Indian Navy, CGL, CPO, Police, Indian Navy and many other competitive exams there is a separate section called General Awareness or General Knowledge, General Science in which there are questions asked regarding Bacterial Diseases in Human Beings. So, to ease out your preparation we have explained in detail the list of important Viral Diseases in Human Beings.

Along with general knowledge, General Science staying updated with Daily Current affairs is also important. Go through the blog to know all the Fungal Diseases in Human Beings.


Human Diseases

It is a condition of the body or its part in which functions are disturbed. The diseases may be broadly classified into two types, i.e. congenital and acquired.

  • Congenital diseases are anatomical or physiological abnormalities present from birth, e.g. cleft palate, blue baby syndrome.
  • Acquired diseases develop after birth. They are further of two types, i.e. communicable and non-communicable.

Communicable (Infectious) Diseases

These diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. Some common communicable diseases are given in the table ahead.

Bacterial Diseases in Human Beings

Diseases:- Tuberculosis

Pathogens:- Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Affected Organs:- Lungs

Symptoms:- Repeated coughing, high fever.


Diseases:- Diphtheria 

Pathogens:- Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Affected Organs:- Respiratory system

Symptoms:- Difficulty in respiration (mainly in children of age 2-5 years)


Diseases:- Whooping cough or Pertussis

Pathogens:- Bacillus pertussis

Affected Organs:- Respiratory system

Symptoms:- Continuous coughing


Diseases:- Cholera

Pathogens:- Vibrio cholerae

Affected Organs:- Intestine

Symptoms:- Vomiting, acute diarrhoea, muscular cramps, dehydration, etc.


Diseases:- Leprosy or Hansen’s diseases

Pathogens:- Mycobacterium leprae

Affected Organs:- Chronic infection of skin and nerve

Symptoms:- Ulcers, nodules, scaly scabs (the infected part of the body becomes senseless)


Diseases:- Tetanus (lockjaw)

Pathogens:- Clostridium tetani

Affected Organs:- Central nervous system

Symptoms:- Painful contraction of neck and jaw muscles followed by paralysis of thoracic muscles.


Diseases:- Pneumonia

Pathogens:- Diplococcus pneumoniae

Affected Organs:- Lungs

Symptoms:- Sudden chill, chest pain, cough and high fever


Diseases:- Typhoid

Pathogens:- Salmonella typhi

Affected Organs:- Intestine

Symptoms:- High fever, diarrhoea and headache.


Diseases:- Plague

Pathogens:- Pasteurella, Yersinia pestis

Affected Organs:- A blood disease

Symptoms:- High fever, weakness and haemorrhage which turn black.


Diseases:- Bubonic plague


Diseases:- Pneumonic plague

Affected Organs:- Lungs

Symptoms:- Haemorrhage of bronchi, lungs


Diseases:- Septicemic plague

Symptoms:- Anaemia, fever, chills leading to death within two days


Diseases:- Gonorrhoea (sexual disease) 

Pathogens:- Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Affected Organs:- Urinary tract

Symptoms:- Swelling in the urinary tract


Viral Diseases in Human Beings

Diseases:- Measles (Rubella disease)

Pathogens:- Rubella virus

Affected Parts:- Whole body

Symptoms:- Loss of appetite, reddish eruption on the body.


Diseases:- Chickenpox

Pathogens:- Varicella virus

Affected Parts:- Whole body

Symptoms:- High fever, reddish eruption on the body


Diseases:- Smallpox

Pathogens:- Variola virus

Affected Parts:- Whole body

Symptoms:- Light fever, the eruption of blood on the body


Diseases:- Polio or Poliomyelitis

Pathogens:- Poliovirus 

Affected Parts:- Throat, backbone and nerve

Symptoms:- Fever, backbone and intestine wall cells are destroyed. It leads to paralysis


Diseases:- Influenza (flu)

Pathogens:- Influenza virus

Affected Parts:- Whole body

Symptoms:- Inflammation of upper respiratory tract, nose, throat and eves


Diseases:- Rabies (Hydrophobia)

Pathogens:- RNA virus called rabies virus

Affected Parts:- Nervous system

Symptoms:- Encephalitis, fear of water, high fever, headache, spasm of throat and chest leading to death


Diseases:- Hepatitis (Epidemic jaundice)

Pathogens:- Hepatitis virus

Affected Parts:- Liver

Symptoms:- Loss of appetite, nausea, whitish still and jaundice


Diseases:- Hepatitis-A

Pathogens:- Hepatitis-A virus

Symptoms:- Not fatal


Diseases:- Hepatitis-B

Pathogens:- Hepatitis-B virus

Symptoms:- Fatal


Diseases:- Dengue fever

Pathogens:- RNA containing dengue virus

Affected Parts:- Whole body, particularly head, eyes and joints

Symptoms:- High fever, backache, headache, retro-orbital pain behind the eyeball


Diseases:- AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome)

Pathogens:- HIV (Human Immuno deficiency Virus)

Affected Parts:- White blood cells

Symptoms:- Weak immune system


Diseases:- Herpes

Pathogens:- Herpesvirus

Affected Parts:- Skin

Symptoms:- Swelling of the skin


Diseases:- Ebola virus disease

Pathogens:- Ebola Virus (filovirus)

Affected Parts:- Whole body

Symptoms:- Fatal haemorrhagic fever, liver and kidney dysfunction, vomiting, headache


Diseases:- Swine influenza (flu)

Pathogens:- H1N1 flu virus

Affected Parts:- Whole body (muscles)

Symptoms:- Headache, tiredness, sore throat, vomiting, breathing problems


Fungal Diseases in Human Beings

Diseases:- Asthma or Aspergillosis

Pathogens(Fungi):- Aspergillus fumigatus

Symptoms:- Obstruction in the functioning of lungs.


Diseases:- Athlete’s foot

Pathogens (Fungi):- Tinea pedis

Symptoms:- Skin disease, cracking of feet.


Diseases:- Scabies

Pathogens(Fungi):- Acarus scabiei

Symptoms:- Skin itching and white spot on the skin


Diseases:- Ringworm

Pathogens(Fungi):- Trichophyton verrucosum

Symptoms:- Round red spot on the skin


Diseases:- Baldness

Pathogens(Fungi):- Tinea capitis

Symptoms:- Hair fall


Protozoan Diseases in Human Beings

Diseases:- Pyorrhoea

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Entamoeba gingivalis

Vectors:- None, infection by lip kissing

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Bleeding of gums


Diseases:- African trypanosomiasis

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Trypanosomiasis gambiense

Vectors:- Tse-tse fly (Glossina palpalis)

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Blood and nervous tissue. Man feels sleepy, which may cause death.


Diseases:- Amoebic dysentery (Amoebiasis)

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Entamoeba histolytica

Vectors:- None, infection by contamination

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Colon (intestine). Develop loose motion with blood, pain in the abdomen.


Diseases:- Diarrhoea

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Giardia

Vectors:- None, infection by contamination

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Digestive system cause loose motions, vomiting.


Diseases:- Kala-azar or dumdum fever

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Leishmania donovani

Vectors:- Sandflies (Phlebotomus)

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Spleen and liver enlarge and high fever develops.


Diseases:- Filaria or Elephantiasis

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Wuchereria bancrofti

Vectors:- Culex mosquito

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Swelling of legs, testes and other body parts.


Diseases:- Malaria

Pathogens (Causative agent):- Plasmodium sp.

Vectors:- Female Anopheles mosquito

Parts Affected and Symptoms:- Periodical attacks of high fever, pain in joints accompanied by chill, heavy perspiration and fast pulse.


Helminthic Diseases in Human Beings

Diseases:- Tapeworms

Helminth:- Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), T.solium (pork tapeworm)

Transmission:- Consuming contaminated meat and fish

Therapy:- Niclosamide


Diseases:- Pinworms

Helminth:- Enterobius vermicularis

Transmission:- Ingesting eggs

Therapy:- Pyrantel pamoate and mebendazole


Diseases:- Hookworm

Helminth:- Necator americanus

Transmission:- Penetration of larvae into the skin from soil

Therapy:- Mebendazole


Diseases:- Ascariasis

Helminth:- Ascaris lumbricoides

Transmission:- Ingesting eggs

Therapy:- Mebendazole


Diseases:- Trichinosis

Helminth:- Trichinella spiralis

Transmission:- Ingesting meat containing larvae

Therapy:- Mebendazole


Non-Communicable Diseases

There are various kinds of non-communicable diseases, which affect the health of human beings. Some of the common non-communicable diseases are

Diabetes

It is a long term condition caused by too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. There are two main types of diabetes-

Type 1:- This type of diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin to function properly or the body’s cells do not react to insulin. This is known as insulin resistance.


Types 2:- It is far more common than type 1 diabetes. IT occurs when the body does not produce any insulin at all.

Cancer

It is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body.

Cause of cancer

  • Cancer is induced by physical, chemical and biological factors or agents. These are called carcinogens or cancer-causing agents. 
  • Ionising radiations such as X-rays. γ-rays and non-ionising radiation such as Ultraviolet (UV) damage the DNA leading to cancer.
  • Tobacco smoke contains chemical carcinogens that cause lung cancer.Viruses also cause cancer. There are called oncogenic viruses as they have gens called viral oncogenes.

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

  • Cancer can be detected based on biopsy and histopathological studies of the tissue for increased call counts.
  • Cancer of internal organs is detected using techniques such as Radiography Computed Tomography (RCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

Important Discoveries

DiscoveryDiscoverer
Blood circulationWilliam Harvey
Blood groupsKarl Landsteiner
VitaminFunk
Vitamin-CSzent Gyorgyi
Vitamin-DEdward Mellanby
StethoscopeRene Laennec
StreptomycinSelman Waksman
Treatment for syphilisPaul Ehrlich
BacteriaLeeuwenhoek
Malaria parasiteRonald Ross
Treatment by UV-raysJW Ritter
RNA (Ribonucleic acid)Friedrich Miescher
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)Watson and Crick
InsulinFrederick Banting
AspirinHoffman
Antiseptic surgeryLister
Treatment of hydrophobiaLouis Pasteur
Heart transplantChristian Bernard
Cholera vaccineHaffkine
Bacteria of tuberculosis and treatmentJean-Antoine Villemin
Bacteria of typhoidRobert Koch
PenicillinAlexander Fleming
Yellow fever treatmentMax Theiler
Beri-beri disease treatmentChristiaan Eijkman
Chloroquine (synthetic)Hans Andersen
ChloroformSimpson
Balck fever treatmentUS Brahmachari
Smallpox vaccineEdward Jenner
Genetic codeHar Gobind Khorana
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)Paul Muller
Polio vaccineJonas Salk
BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin) vaccineCalmette Guerin
TerramycinFinlay et. al.

Human Body (At a Glance)

  1. The total number of bones in the human body – 206 

2. The total number of muscles in the human body – 639 

3. Longest bone – Femur (thing bone)

4. Smallest bone – Ear ossicle-stapes

5. The largest organ of the human body – Skin

6. Number of cells in the body – 75 trillion

7. Weight of brain – 1424g

8. Hb content in the body – 500-700gm

9. Blood platelets – 200000-400000 per cubic mm

10. Universal blood donor – O Blood Group

11. Universal blood recipient – AB Blood Group

12. Blood clotting time – 2-5 minutes

13. Breathing rate – 16-20/minute

14. Dental formula – Adult: 2123/2123=32, Child: 2120/2120=20 milk teeth

15. Human Body Number of kidneys –

16. Largest endocrine gland – Thyroid

17. The largest muscle in the body – Gluteus maximus (Buttock muscle)

18. Greatest regeneration power – In liver

19. Minimum regeneration power – In brain cells

20. Minimum distance for proper vision – 25 cm

21. Normal sperms count – 200-350 million/ejaculation

22. Thinnest skin – Conjunctiva

23. The number of ribs – 24 (12 pairs) 

24. The number of chambers in the heart –

25. Largest artery – Aorta 

26. Normal Blood pressure – 120/80  mm Hg

27. The ph of blood – 7.4 

28. The number of vertebrae in the spine – 33 

29. Number of vertebrae in the Neck –

30. Number of bones in middle Ear –

31. Number of bones in Face – 14 

32. Number of bones in Skull – 22 

33. Number of bones in Chest – 25 

34. Number of bones in Arms – 6 

35. Number of bones in each human ear –

36. Number of muscles in the human arm – 72 

37. Number of pumps in heart – 2 

38. Largest gland – Liver 

39. Smallest cell – Blood cell 

40. Biggest cell – Egg cell (ovum) 

41. Smallest bone – Stapes 

42. First transplanted organ – Heart 

43. The average length of the small intestine – 7 m 

44. The average length of the large intestine – 1.5 m 

45. The average weight of a newborn baby – 2.6 kg 

46. Pulse rate in one minute – 72 times 

47. Normal Body Temperature – 98.4ºF or 37ºC

48. Average blood volume – 4 – 5 litres 

49. The average life of RBC – 120 days 

50. Pregnancy period – 280 days 

51. Number of bones in human foot – 33


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SHUBHAM VINIT

SHUBHAM VINIT

awesome content, very helpful for students specially who are preparing for CIVIL SERVICES.

Ankush Avinash

Ankush Avinash

Nice work