Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids, Bases and Salts

Are you aware of the Acids, Bases and Salts? Well, many of us do not know most of the Acids, Bases and Salts. Hence, in this blog, we have listed out all the Organic Acids their Sources and Uses in 2021.

In most of the government entrance examinations like RRB (Railway Recruitment Board), SSC (Staff Selection Commission), BPSC, CTET, Indian Army, and many other competitive exams there is a separate section called General Awareness or General Knowledge, General Science in which there are questions asked regarding Some Important Indicators. So, to ease out your preparation we have explained in detail the list of important pH of Some Common Substances. Along with general knowledge, General Science staying updated with Daily Current affairs is also important. Go through the blog to know all the Some Important Salts and their Uses.


  • These are the substance, which has a sour taste and turn blue litmus red.
  • These are the substance that gave H+ ions in their aqueous solution (Arrhenius concept) e.g., HCL, H2SO4.
  • These, in aqueous solution, are conductors of electricity.
  • Generally, most of the acids contain hydrogen.
  • Pickles are always kept in glass jars because the acid present in them reacts with the metal of metallic pot.

Few Organic Acids their Sources and Uses

Organic acidFound in\ SourceUses
Acetic acidVinegarIn the preservation of Pickle and Chinese foods.
Benzoic acidBalsam treeFood preservation
Citric acidCitrus fruits such as Oranges, Lemon, grapes etc.In the cloth industry, in washing metals.
Formic acid / Methanoic acidAnt’s Sting / BeeLeather industry, in making insecticides.
Hydrochloric acidStomach
Lactic acidCurd, MilkIn the setting of milk to curd.
Meleic acidAppleIn polymers and medicines.
Oxalic acidSpinach, TomatoIn removing ink, Photography.
Tartaric acidTamarind


  • These are the substance, which has a bitter taste and turn red litmus blue.
  • Bases give OH- ion in their aqueous solution (Arrhenius concept) e.g., NaOH, KOH, CsOH, Mg(OH)2 etc.
  • Water-soluble bases are called alkali e.g., NaOH, KOH.


  • Indicators are the substances that change their colour or odour when add into an acid or an alkaline solution.

Some Important Indicators

IndicatorsWith acidsWith bases
Litmus (natural)RedBlue
Methyl orangeOrange-redYellow
Turmeric (natural)YellowRed

pH Value

  • It is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution.
  • It is 7 for a neutral solution, greater than 7 for a basic solution and less than 7 for an acidic solution.
  • Example of some salts

pH of Some Common Substances

Gastric juice1.0 – 3.0
Lemon2.2 – 2.4
Soft drinks2.0 – 4.0
Vinegar2 – 3
Urine (human)4.8 – 8.4
Saliva (human)6.5 – 7.5
Rain water6.0
Sea water8.5
Milk of magnesia10.5
Milk (cow)6.3 – 6.6
Blood plasma (human)7.30 – 7.42


These are the product of neutralisation reaction between an acid and base, e.g.,

Salt of weak Acid and Strong Bases

  • Salt of sodium and potassium other than halides sulphates and nitrates fall in the thin category.
  • If the pH value of salt is 14, then it is a salt of a weak acid and a strong base.
  • As the pH value increases from 7 to 14, it represents an increase in H+ ion concentration.

Some Important Salts and their Uses

SaltChemical name 
Baking sodaSodium bicarbonate
(NaHCO₃ )
For making bread and cake softener. Also, in fire extinguisher and as an antacid.
Bleaching powderCalcium oxychloride
For disinfecting water, in textiles and paper industries.
Blue vitriolCopper SulphateCopper Sulphate pentahydrate is used as a fungicide.
LimeCalcium oxide (CaO)In glass and cement industries and also in white washing of houses.
NitrePotassium nitrate
Used in gin-powder, match stick, Fertilizers etc.
Plaster of ParisCalcium Sulphate hemihydrate
(CaSO4⋅ 1/2H2O)
For plastering fractures bones, house construction and the making of sculptures
Washing sodaSodium carbonate
(Na₂CO₃ .10H₂O)
For cleaning clothes, making glass, soap, paper and removing hardness of the water.

Common Salt

  • It is chemically Sodium Chloride (NaCl).
  • It is the salt that we use in food.
  • It is an important raw material for various materials of daily use like- Baking soda, washing soda, Bleaching power, etc.
  • NaCl was an important staple in India.

Washing Soda

  • It is a chemical sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na₂CO₃ .10H₂O)and is used for removing the permanent hardness of the water.
  • Magnesium hydroxide is used as a remedy for acidity.
  • Ant or Bee string contains methanoic or formic acid. Due to this, victims feel pain and irritation. The use of a metal base like baking soda is a remedy for it.
  • Bleaching powder is a mixed salt and alum is a double salt.

Baking Soda

  • It is sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃).
  • When mixed with a melid edible acid such as tartaric acid it is called baking powder.
  • Used to make bread or cake soft and spongy.
  • It is used as an antacid and in soda-acid fire extinguishers.

Bleaching Powder

  • It is chemically CaOCl2 
  • It is used for disinfecting drinking water.

Plaster of Paris

  • It is chemically Calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4⋅ 1/2H2O) and obtained by heating gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)
  • It is used to plaster fractured bones, for making toys, materials for decoration and for making surfaces smooth.

Copper Sulphate

  • Copper sulphate when anhydrous, is white and when associated with the water of crystallisation (i.e., CaSO4.5H2O), is blue, so it is called blue vitriol.
  • It is used to test the presence of water.

Potassium Nitrate

  • It is used as fertilizer, in gun powder (C + S + KNO3), in matchsticks, etc.

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